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The Earth of contention.
War to the war.

Shmuel Katz.

  From the Administration: Proposed your attention the material in its historical perspective clearly shows the opposition of Arab States and Israel.
  I hope you will appreciate the work of the author, as he quietly leads us to think about the vital need for countries to engage in maritime transport safety, and understanding of the problems m unexpected "surprises" we have had, have and will have until the dependent of the Arab Republic of Egypt, and owned by it in the Suez Canal.

  With cuts from the site:

  14 May 1967 the territorial boundaries of the State of Israel represented the line taken by the armistice agreement with Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Egypt in 1949. Israel has not yet mastered the territories, found themselves in his hands three weeks later, after the war, which is not expected even people with a rich imagination.
  It was hard to imagine a more vulnerable border. In the middle part of the territory of the distance from the border to the shores of the Mediterranean was barely sixteen kilometers. And this narrow isthmus, the waist was the most densely populated part of Israel: There is a Tel Aviv with satellite cities Ramat Gan, Petah Tikva - from the east, Bat Yam and Holon - from the south, Herzliya and Netanya - from the north, there have been concentrated All commercial and industrial centers of the country. To the east over the strip hung central ridge of the mountains of Eretz Israel - the mountains of Ephraim, and they were in the hands of Jordanians. All this part of Israel could sweep through, without moving from the place of a single gun. At dawn on June 6, 1967 a shell fired from an Arab village of Qalqilya, flying over the north-eastern sector of the coastline in the south-west and blew up a mile from the Mediterranean Sea, hitting one of the apartments in the house on Masaryk Square in Tel Aviv.
  In the north-east of the country at the foot of the Golan Heights, which were in the hands of Syria, stretched like a billiard table, the Hula Valley, which drained the swamps, built the village surrounded by greenery.
  The south-west of the country is desert, Sinai Peninsula, almost deserted, but sprinkled with military airfields of the Egyptians, at a distance of 3-10 minutes flight from the densely populated coastal strip Israel.

  With these boundaries 5 June 1967, Israel started the war - sent its air force and ground troops against the armed forces of Egypt, Jordan and Syria and defeated them, reaching the eastern part of Eretz Israel to the Jordan River, capturing the Golan Heights in the north and Peninsula Sinai to the Suez Canal and Red Sea.
  From Israel, even some of his friends need to retreat to the borders of June 5, 1967, and, more precisely, to the Armistice Line of 1949, "with light and slight changes.   Such a retreat - from the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip to the gates of Ashkelon, and from Judea and Samaria - to the narrow strip along the sea, from the Golan Heights over the Hula Valley - will, in their view, for peace between Israel and Arab states. The path to peace, tell us, lies in a return to the situation prior to June 5, 1967.

  Central to life in Israel before June 5, 1967 in those narrow and incredibly vulnerable borders were incessant threat of Arab States to destroy it. Neighboring Arab states - Egypt, followed by Syria and Jordan in support of Iraq - have begun to concentrate their forces for a surprise attack from three sides on Israel in precisely those boundaries.   They used the media to say publicly about the impending destruction of Israel. Israel saved itself by using a single strategy, perhaps in the existing topographic conditions: sudden preventive attack on the main enemy, Egypt. In six days of fighting on three fronts for all the amazing, incredible, historic achievements of Israel paid losses, which in relation to the population as high as U.S. losses in the ten years of war in Vietnam.
The attack, which wanted the Arabs, and the signs of which began to appear in May 1967, was the ultimate manifestation of eighteen hostile activity against Israel on all fronts.   During this period there was no such item in the armistice agreement of 1949, which would be open, not in breach of the Arab countries. Yet they signed after the talks that an agreement defining their relations with Israel.

  Who today remembers the ship with the name "Rimfrost? Or ships "Frank Maria" and "Captain Manolis? Or "Inga Toft? "Astifaliya?
  Perhaps the only members of their crews and businessmen carrying on their own goods. In 1950, these and many other ships involved in the prolonged attack by the Arabs in Israel. Danish ship "Inga Toft" with an Israeli cargo of phosphates and cement, was detained in the Suez Canal in May 1959. 262 days the ship was under arrest until the legitimate owners of lost hope, not instructed the captain to take the requirements of the Egyptian authorities. Egyptians confiscated goods, and "Inga Toft with a hold back empty to Haifa. During these 262 days of Egypt expresses its numerous protests (accessed directly in Cairo, discussed this issue at the UN Assembly) against the violation of international rights. But it was all to no avail.
  Sending the Danish ship through the Suez Canal, the Israeli government, in fact, denied by the strong protection of their right freely to conduct their own ships through the canal. Eight years, Egypt has not missed the Israeli ship. Tips different countries, the statement by UN Secretary-led government of Israel to the decision to go through compromise and send the Israeli foreign cargo vessel. When the Danish vessel was standing under arrest, there was no shortage of advice. In a statement to the Government of Israel, executive secretary of the UN Dag Hammarskjold suggested that if Israel did not ship will be sent no Israeli goods, ie goods that have already purchased is not an Israeli, Egyptian President Nasser show "moderation" and allow the vessel to pass the Suez Canal.   Government of Israel has taken advice and even agreed to maintain secrecy.   "Inga Toft" was still under arrest, when the December 17, 1959 in the Suez Canal has become a Greek ship "Astifaliya" with load (this was a new deal). The vessel was immediately arrested. After four months of protests, the owners of the vessel also surrendered to the requirements of the Egyptian authorities and agreed to the confiscation of the goods.
  All these months of intense fighting around the ships, most maritime nations many times loudly protested. However, their ships have continued to quietly pass through the Suez Canal. Thus, daily and hourly Egypt hinted that, except for oral objections will not have any shares, and even warning for violation of certain Convention on Navigation, signed at Kushte in 1888, each item is interpreted clearly and unambiguously. On the Suez Canal, said this:
  "The Suez Canal will be open for navigation is always in the war days and days of the world, for any commercial or military vessel, without any discrimination, the flags ... Nobody ever would have the right to close the channel."

  The procession of ships of countries - members of the UN, without a twinge of conscience each day passed by arrested "by Inga Toft, once again made it clear that he does not really relate to these countries for violating the rules of international shipping in the Security Council. This decision the United Nations adopted the first time in 1951, when Egypt was the first time applied the sanctions against Israel in the Suez Canal, and then again in 1954. The decision demanded that Egypt "to put an end to restrictions on the passage of merchant ships and international cargo through the Suez Canal."

  Closure of the Suez Canal for passage of Israeli ships and cargoes were only part of the economic war, which strictly and consistently led the Arab states against the State of Israel since the early days of its creation. After the signing of the armistice agreement in 1949, in which the Arabs "refuse to perform military and hostile actions, they are increasingly intensified economic conflicts.
  Arab countries have tried to deprive Israel of water. Initially, they refused to cooperate with the United States in the program saving water resources and sources of the Jordan. Then try using the artillery and by force to prevent Israel to manage their scarce water resources (Israel tried to withdraw on its territory of the waters of the Jordan). Lack of water resources has been a weak point in the Israeli economy, and because Arab countries saw it as their duty to oppose any projects related to ensuring Israel's water.
  Boycott of Israeli goods and trade institutions of the Arabs used long before the establishment of Israel, and every year he was becoming wider. Arab countries prohibited all trade relations with Israel, the offenders severely punished. In fact, prohibited any contact with Israel and bans any form of ties with Israel - postal, telephone, telegraph, by sea, by air, by rail. Moreover, any traveler who has a stamp in the passport that he even once visited Israel and met in Israel, categorically denied entry to the Arab states.   The boycott has reached all corners of the globe, for its organization was created enormous apparatus. Management Center, located in Damascus, has created over time a "black list" of companies around the world, trade with Israel, the ships docking at ports of Israel, even actors and musicians who performed in Israel or expressed feelings of friendship for the Jewish state. From Damascus against all ranked in the list waged a campaign of pressure, blackmail or threats. Questionnaires and letters with threats received by different institutions in many countries: the threatened termination of all business and trade ties with the League of Arab countries, if they would cooperate with Israel. In Damascus, in order to detect the "hole" in the boycott was an international network of surveillance.
  And the campaign has largely been successful. Arab states with their potential in the hundred of millions of consumers have tremendous power of attraction for businessmen, hungry markets. In some countries jumped sharply purchasing power of citizens in connection with the incredible increase oil production. Many companies around the world succumbed to the demands or threats of Arab States, they secretly supported the boycott against Israel.
  Tricks of the economic war spread to all spheres of international relations, which had never happened. It was forbidden to transfer to Israel weather information. Aircraft flying to Israel, it was forbidden to cross the airspace of the Arab countries. In vain it was to appeal to the Arab airports to ask for help or ask them any necessary information for flight. Arab States have refused to cooperate with Israel in any agency in any international campaign - whether it is a campaign to combat diseases in the region, with locusts, with drugs.

  The ongoing economic war has been an integral part of the military blockade of Israel and its neighbors - Egypt, Jordan and Syria. Only two years from the age of eighteen armistice agreements Israel has lived in relatively peaceful environment. From 1949 (the year of signing of the armistice agreement) until 1956, attacks on civilians and objects from the Sinai, Gaza, from beyond the Jordan, the Golan Heights has grown, and they became more violent. In this period - seven years - the Arabs have committed 11 873 attacks. In Israel, killed 1 335 people, of whom more than 1 000 - were civilians.
  In 1956 the campaign reached its climax. Suddenly, the Egyptian government had closed the Straits of Tiran, the only sea passage to the southern Israeli port of Eilat, exhibited artillery positions on two small islands of Tiran and Sanafir than virtually cut off Israel's southern gate of the southern hemisphere, from the east coast of Africa and the Far East.
  Egyptian armed incursions into Israeli territory have become a daily. Percolated nagleli group of terrorists in his eyes, starting with desertions over the border, and then go to the raids on the center of the country. Some terrorist acts committed by the most of Tel Aviv.
  With the onset of autumn pillars of Egyptian tanks began crossing through the Suez Canal on the Sinai Peninsula.
  Everything began to show more clearly the front line in the desert along the truce with Israel and the Gaza Strip, in the second echelon concentrated tanks. The presence of tanks showed that the region was invaded by a new force - the USSR. In 1955, Moscow began to send tanks to Egypt, weapons and aircraft in quantities which the region is not known since the 2-nd World War, when the Western Desert of heavy fighting between the British and Germanic armies.
  In the midst of the action of Egypt came to an agreement with Jordan, Syria and Iraq to establish a common military command. In an atmosphere of great expectations, they were preparing to invade Israel.
  Israel Defense Forces ahead of them. In late October 1956 a lightning operation, it smashed the Egyptian army from the Sinai Peninsula on the west bank of the Suez Canal and destroyed all the bases of terrorist gangs, invaded Israel, and re-opened to Israeli shipping Straits of Tiran.
  However, the U.S. government, which is not the first time showed a serious misunderstanding of the goals of Arabs and Arab character and did not even try to understand the basics of the imperialist strategy of the Soviet Union, had opened diplomatic pressure on Israel, while secretly threatening him with economic sanctions. Government of Israel retreated. The IDF left the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip. However, U.S. pressure was accompanied by commitments to the UN of France, Britain and other world powers to guarantee Israel free shipping through the straits. From Washington was also the promises, though very vague, support the right of Israeli shipping through the Suez Canal. At the time of trial, in May 1967, none of these promises, none of the guarantees were not met.
  However, the rapid defeat in battle led to the collapse of the Egyptian army, undermining its spirit. Much of the armor and weapons of the Egyptians was destroyed or taken as booty. After that came two years of peace and quiet.
  1) Probably the discontent of the U.S. comes from the fact that, along with Israel against Egypt began on their own initiative, Britain and France after the nationalization of the Suez Canal. Both countries acted in contact with Israel. But the broader issue is not respect to the actual action of Egypt against Israel.

  Sometime later, the Soviet Union offered to Egypt to submit a detailed list of weapons needed to restore the combat capability of the Egyptian army. Again, from the Black Sea in Egypt rolled tanks, guns, airplanes. Then the Soviet Union began to supply weapons and Syria. Since then relations between the USSR and the two Arab countries became closer. The flow of weapons continuously increased.
  An aggressive campaign by the Arabs resumed in 1959 and more never faltered. Israel has been subjected to incessant attacks on all armistice lines (except Lebanon): from the territories held by Jordan, in the heart of the western land of Israel from the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights to the northeast. Today in Israel there are hundreds of boys and girls who were born in places far from the cease-fire lines of 1949 and spent his childhood - most days and nights - in shelters deep underground.
  From time to time, the Israeli army carried out a sting operation in response to the attacks of the enemy. At some time it cools Arab militancy, but the action never stopped.
  The seriousness of the situation of Israel revealed suddenly in May 1967 and surprised everyone. It's not a secret that Egypt might turn the Sinai Peninsula into a base for attacks on the heart of the Jewish state. Everyone knew that the troops of the UN observers, established in 1957, after the Sinai Campaign, will melt away like smoke, is only to Egypt to decide on the attack. Everyone knew that at the moment when he wakes up the destructive spirit of the Arab nation, Arab states can work together to attack from three fronts against Israel, whose strength is in the infantry and artillery, much smaller number of aircraft is one third of the Arab air forces, tanks, totaling less. Even in Israel itself, many are not aware of the seriousness of the situation, and then, after the war, Israel pressed, that he again gave it to oblivion.
  However, these facts were found incredibly quickly. May 14, President Nasser began to enter the infantry and tanks in the Sinai. Three days later, the Syrians have announced that their troops on the Golan Heights are ready for combat. Nasser demanded the immediate evacuation of UN monitors from the Sinai. UN Secretary-General U Thant quickly complied with this requirement. UN troops are gone. The commander of Egyptian troops in Sinai, General Murtagh sent an appeal to the army, which for the most convincing broadcast on Cairo Radio 18 May:
  "The Egyptian troops took up positions according to a preconceived plan. The spirit of our armed forces has never been greater, because it was day, which they have long waited for - the day of holy war."
  Four days later, Nasser closed the Tiran Straits. Then, on 30 May, King Hussein of Jordan arrived in Cairo, hurrying to sign the pact with Nasser on mutual assistance in matters of defense. Now, everyone seemed ready to begin military action. Within two weeks the noose on Israel's long.
  Arab leaders and their press officer believed, because of their numerical superiority, its unity, the ability to use the strategic weakness of Israel - believed in its success and openly proclaimed the clear and simple goals of its policy: the destruction of the Jewish state. As it turned out, the Arab leaders were mistaken in their calculations, although they were united and surpassed the Israelis in the number of personnel, aircraft and tanks, weapons and ships.

  The war of Arabs against Israel from 1949 to 1967 was accompanied not stop the ever-increasing diplomatic pressure and propaganda campaign whose purpose it is no secret was, it proclaimed over and over again. "Our purpose, - concluded Nasser at the time - fully restore Palestinian rights. In other words, our goal - to destroy the Jewish state. The primary objective: strengthening the Arab military power. The purpose of the National: Israel to lift the roots" (November 18, 1965 ).
  Every year in autumn hall UN in New York turned into a platform where representatives of Arab States, which became more and more attacks on Israel. This war against Israel on all fronts was carried out even before its members were "occupied territories".
  And then exert pressure on Israel from all sides, demanding that he relented. What could be concessions at the time? But then demanded it "territorial" concessions. As the main reason for the intransigence of the Arabs and all the ills of the Middle East called the problem of Arab refugees.
  Then it was the main obstacle to peace.

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